HEADQUARTERS TWENTIETH AIR FORCE
APO 234, c/o Postmaster
San Francisco, California

GENERAL ORDERS)
              :                                        23 January 1946
NO..........13)

SECTION V

      DISTINGUISHED UNIT CITATION As authorized by Executive
Order 9396 (Sec I, WD, Bull 22, 1943), superceding Executive
Order 9075 (Sec III, WD Bull 11, 1942), and under the provisions
of paragraph 2d (1), Section IV, Circular No 333 WD 1943, and
letter, Headquarters United States Army Strategic Air Forces,
file AG 200.6, subject:"Distinguished Unit Badge", dated 11
October 1945, and paragraph 4 Section I, General Orders 1,
Pacific Air Command, United States Army, 25 December 1945,
(Classified), the following units are cited for outstanding
performance of duty in action against the enemy:

      The 16th Bombardment Group (VH) is cited for outstanding
performance of duty in armed conflict with the enemy during the
period 29 July 1945 to 6 August 1945. As a part of a specially
trained and equipped force charged with the obliteration of the
enemy's capacity of produce oil, it struck devastating and
crippling blows on the Japanese oil industry. Its B-29 aircraft
were equipped with a recently-developed radar bombing device
requiring highly trained crews on the ground and in the air. to
allow for a heavier bomb load and increased speed, each aircraft
was stripped of all defensive fire power except three .50-caliber
guns in the tail. Attacking high priority oil targets 1500 miles
over great expanses of ocean, through extensive areas of adverse
weather, the 16th Bombardment Group struck at night, unarmored
and unescorted and in defiance of enemy anti-aircraft fire and
fighters, with such precision, accuracy and skill, that each
assigned target during this period was left a heap of wreckage.
On the night of 28 July, the Shimotsu Oil Refinery, an important
refinery of crude petroleum, was blasted and virtually destroyed.
Storage facilities for 27,000 barrels of oil were wrecked and
1,158,000 cubic feet of 90 percent of the original gasometer
capacity was gutted. So accurately did the crews of the 16th
Bombardment Group utilize their revolutionary equipment, that
radar scope photos revealed 100 percent of the plotted tracks of
their aircraft passing squarely over the target. The unerring
night-raiders of the 16th Bombardment Group struck again on 1
August, this time at the Mitsubishi Oil Refinery and installation
of the great petroleum complex at Zewasaki and of vital
importance to Japan's continued conduct of the war. Braving
heavy flak defences which necessitated maximum compressibility,
93 percent of the Group's aircraft which were plotted split the
target with their bomb runs. This mainstay of Japan's war
machine crumbled into a tangled mass and was rendered completely
inoperative under such technical and persistent accuracy by the
bombers. Continuing its operations, the 16th Bombardment Group
struck again on the night of 3 August at the Ubo Coal
Liquofaction Company, one of Japan's leading producers of
synthetic oil. Bombing at an altitude of 10,000 to 10,400 feet
through an undercast which completely covered the target area,
and in the face of enemy aircraft attacks and heavy anti-aircraft
fire, the planes located and completely destroyed the plant.
Once again plots of the attacking aircraft showed that 97 percent
of the force had bisected the target, and the damage wrought was
so complete that a great part of the plant was sunk beneath the
level of the sea. Realizing the strategic importance of their
assignment, ground personnel of the 16th Bombardment Group
performed their duties under difficult conditions with inspiring
initiative, untiring effort and selfless devotion to duty. The
combined accomplishments of air and ground crews in the period
cited contributed greatly to the destruction of the major oil
refining and storage capacity of Japan and drastically reduced
its productive power and ability to continue the war, thereby
bringing great honor to the United States Army Air Forces and to
the entire military service.

      The 331st Bombardment Group (VH) is cited for outstanding
performance of duty in armed conflict with the enemy during the
period of 22 July 1945 to 29 July 1945. During this period, the
331st Bombardment Group (VH), part of a force assigned the
mission of destroying the Japanese petroleum industry struck
crippling and devastating blows at enemy petroleum installations
with the aid of a recent developed radar bombing instrument. The
attacks were pressed into the heart of the enemy homeland in
unescorted B-29 aircraft which had been stripped of all defensive
armament except three .50-caliber machine guns in the tail. On
the night of 22 July 1945, the 331st Bombardment Group (VH)
attacked the Ubo Coal Liquofaction plant at Ubo, one of Japan's
leading producers of synthetic oil. With the shipping blockade
virtually cutting off the Japanese from crude oil, the Ubo
installation and its synthetic oil production were of prime
importance to the enemy's war effort. Units of this Bombardment
Group, in the face of Japanese fighters and anti-aircraft fire,
dropped their bombs, smashing storage facilities, pipe stills,
conveyers and other essential equipment. Radar scope photographs
showed that 100 percent of the aircraft plotted on the bomb run
had passed directly over the target, a testimony to the
remarkable ability and coordination of crew members and in using
the new radar set. On the night of 25 July 1945, the 331st
Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Mitsubishi-Hayama Petroleum
complex at Kawasaki, the heart of Japan's industrial section.
anti-aircraft defenses guarding these refineries were the
heaviest in the Empire. Fighter attack again was imminent.
Weather was bad. Yet the radar bombing of this unit destroyed
more than 700,000 barrels of storage capacity and wrecked
industrial buildings, iso-octane units and other installations
vital to an enemy already in serious need of aviation fuel.
Three nights later, on 28 July, the 331st Bombardment Group (VH)
make another attack over long stretches of water and through
unfavorable weather conditions. This time they bombed the
Shimotsu Oil refinery at Shimotsu, guarded by fighters and flak
and hidden by natural terrain features. The refinery, housing
some of the most modern petroleum equipment in Japan, was almost
completely destroyed and reconnaissance showed that it was beyond
repair. Made at great distance from the home base of the 331st
Group, all of these attacks involved fatiguing and dangerous
overwater flying which tested to the limit the endurance, skill
and courage of aircrews. Adverse weather, enemy fighter attacks
and anti-aircraft barrages were constant hazards and the response
of air crews under those circumstances manifested the spirit of
the total war against Japan. Ground personnel of the 331st
Bombardment Group (VH) displayed unusual willingness, ability and
initiative in the performance of their duties. Working under
great handicaps they succeeded in maintaining an organization
capable of dealing severe blows to the enemy. The achievements
of the 331st Bombardment Group (VH) during this period
contributed greatly to the destruction of the major oil refining
and storage capacity of Japan and drastically reduced the power
and ability of the enemy to continue the war, thereby bringing
great honor to the United States Army Air Forces and to the
entire military service.

      The 501st Bombardment Group (VH) is cited for outstanding
performance of duty in armed conflict with the enemy. During the
period 6 July 1945 to 13 July 1945 that organization delivered
devastating attacks against Japanese petroleum installations on
the island of Honshu to demonstrate the revolutionary
capabilities of a new radar bombing instrument which was
undergoing its first test under battle conditions. Personnel of
the 501st Bombardment Group (VH) demonstrated efficiency, courage
and devotion to duty in long flights over enemy water and through
adverse weather conditions which often cut off all visibility.
B-29 aircraft of this unit had sacrificed defensive fire power
for speed and bomb-carrying capacity by stripping the planes of
all armament except three .50-caliber tail guns. With this bare
protection, aircraft were more than usually vulnerable to enemy
fighter attack and anti-aircraft defenses. On the night of 6
July 1945, the 501st Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Maruzon
Oil Refinery at Shimotsu, considered one of the most important
refineries and oil storage points for the enemy navy in its home
islands. Flying more than 1500 miles from their home base,
aircraft of this Group attacked the target in single bombing runs
without defensive escort.
  Despite an undercast which completely obscured the refinery, 95
percent of the installation was destroyed. On the night of 9
July 1945, the 501st Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Utsubo
Oil Refinery at Yokkaiehi, one of the three most important oil
refineries in Japan. This installation produced a significant
portion of the aviation gasoline used by the enemy's air forces,
and while it had undergone previous attacks, it was still capable
of production. Radar photograph plots showed that 100 percent of
the group aircraft had passed directly over the target against
enemy anti-aircraft fire and unfavorable weather conditions. the
refinery was left in reins. On the night of 12 July, the 501st
Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Kawasaki Petroleum Center
located in the heart of Japans most important and most heavily
defended industrial district. This target comprised the
facilities of four leading oil companies and had a combined daily
refining capacity of 7,000 barrels. Despite intense and accurate
anti-aircraft fire, 82 percent of the Group aircraft that were
plotted passed directly over the target, and smashed warehouse,
tanks, pipe stills, furnaces and other vital equipment, thus
delivering a serious blow to the enemy's ability to produce
petroleum products. On all of these missions, ground personnel
of the 501st Bombardment Group (VH) displayed outstanding
ability, willingness, and ingenuity in carrying out their
assigned tasks, under extreme handicaps. The improvised
equipment and methods of work while maintaining aircraft on a
base still under construction and lacking many facilities. The
achievements of the 501st Bombardment Group during this period
contributed greatly to the destruction of the major oil refining
and storage capacity of Japan and drastically reduced the power
and ability of the enemy to continue the war, thereby bringing
honor to the United States Army Air Forces and to the entire
military service.

      The 502nd Bombardment Group (VH) is cited for outstanding
performance of duty in action against the enemy. During the
period from 5 August 1945 to 15 August 1945, this organization
struck crippling blows at the Japanese petroleum industry. The
action demonstrated the high efficiency, courage and resolution
of 502nd personnel and characterized the spirit of air attack
throughout the war. Particularly was this true in view of the
fact that this organization employed recently developed radar
bombing instrument and that it flew B-29 aircraft which had been
stripped of all defensive armament except three .50-caliber tail
machine guns. On the night of 5 August 1945, the 502nd
Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Ubo Coal Liquofaction plant
at Ubo, inn important producer of synthetic oil. This
installation was of major importance to the Japanese war effort
as the enemy had been virtually cut off the naval blockade to
sources of crude oil. The aircrews of this organization employed
their new radar bombing device so successfully 94 percent of the
aircraft plotted on the bomb run passed directly over the target.
Later reconnaissance of the area revealed that the installation
was completely destroyed and that bombs had breached nearby dykes
and permitted water to flood the area. On the night of 9 August
1945, the 502nd Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the tank farm of
the Nippon Oil Refinery at Amagasaki, one the most heavily
defended areas of Japan. Enclosed in a small area, 800 x 1000
feet, this was an extremely difficult target to hit even under
favorable conditions of visibility. This organization, however,
with outstanding precision destroyed eight of ten tanks in the
Amagasaki farm. Radar scope photographs disclosed that more than
80 percent of the group aircraft plotted had passed directly over
the target. On the night of 14 August 1945, the 502nd
Bombardment Group (VH) attacked the Nippon Oil Refinery at
Tsuchizaki, an important petroleum installation which had
heretofore been considered inaccessible because of its great
distance from any allied air base. This mission of 3,740 statute
miles was flown non-stop without bomb bay tanks. Despite the
great distance, this group carried a bomb load which had
previously been considered large for missions of shorter range.
Braving the dangers of a long overwater flight without the
protection of friendly fighters, the aircrews attacked the target
and left it a smoking ruin. Later reconnaissance revealed that
every part of the installation had been hit by bombs and that the
refinery was almost completely destroyed or damaged.

Despite fatigue, the hazards of long overwater flights in
adverse weather conditions, and the threat of enemy attacks,
flying personnel of this organization demonstrated at all times a
willingness to perform their duties at peak efficiency. Matching
the aircrews in accomplishment were the ground personnel, who
showed meritorious initiative, perserverance and fidelity in
carrying out their assignments, working long hours with
incomplete facilities. The achievements of the 502nd Bombardment
Group (VH) contributed greatly to the destruction of the major
oil refining storage capacity of Japan and drastically reduced
the power and ability of the enemy to continue the war, thereby
bringing great honor to the United States Army Air Forces and to
the entire military service.


      BY COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL PARKER:

L H RODIECK
Colonel, GSC
Chief of Staff

OFFICIAL:
           GUSTAV A NEUBERG
           Lt Col, AGD
           Adjutant General

DISTRIBUTION: A AND D
      Plus 2 - PACUSA SCU APC 925
          5 - Ea Organ

A CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

RICHARD W. FLURY,
Captain, Air Corps




Content 2003,2004, Larry Miller
September 14, 2004